Beijing folk house-Siheyuan_Architecture of ancient people

It is difficult to have a dwelling that is as striking as the quadrangle in our country. The Courtyard is a traditional courtyard-style building in China that many people have seen. Its layout is that a yard is built on all sides, usually consisting of a main house, an east-west box house, and an inverted house. They surround the courtyard from the four sides in the middle, hence the name of the courtyard. Four of Sihe refers to the east, west, south , and north sides, and he means that the houses on four sides are enclosed together to form an approximate mouth shape.

You can t see the courtyard house in the south. The courtyard house is a unique trademark of the northern residences, especially the courtyard house in Beijing, which is the most distinctive in the courtyard house in the north. When the ruler of the Liao Dynasty was in Beijing at that time, construction of the courtyard house had already begun. Jing, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties gradually perfected, and eventually became Beijing s most distinctive living form. After hundreds of years of construction, Beijing Siheyuan has formed Beijing s unique Beijing flavor style from the floor layout to internal structure and detailed decoration.

Beijing regular courtyard houses are usually built from the north to the south and are built symmetrically. The basic structure is the north house (main house), south house (inverted house), and east and west chambers, which are separated on all sides, surrounded by high walls to form a quadrangle, and open a door. The gate is located at the 巽 position in the southeast corner of the house. The total number of rooms is usually the North Room, which includes three main rooms and two ear rooms, the East and West Rooms each have three rooms.

古 In the ancient times, the distribution of residences in the courtyard was well-regulated. The main house in the inner residence was well-placed for the grandfather and wife of the older generation. Only one of the three north rooms opens to the outside and is called a house. The two rooms on both sides only open the door to the hall, forming a suite, which becomes a pattern of two lights. Places for family living, entertaining relatives, or offering ancestors during the New Year are in the hall, with bedrooms on both sides of the hall. The east-west ear room can be opened with a single door or connected to the main room. It is generally used as a bedroom or study. The east-west box room was inhabited by the juniors, and the box room was also bright and dark. The middle one was the living room and the two sides were the bedrooms.

In the middle of the courtyard, the empty place is called the courtyard. Most courtyards are very spacious. Trees and flowers are planted in it, which is the center of the courtyard layout. It is also where people walk, light, ventilate, cool down, rest, and do housework. local.

Beijing Siheyuan is very particular about the unity of man and nature. The courtyard is planted with trees and flowers, flowers and trees are sparse, elegant and pleasant. The flowers that old Beijingers love to plant are lilac, elm plum, begonia, etc. The trees are mostly jujube and locust trees. The most common potted plants are pomegranate trees, silver laurels, oleanders, laurels, rhododendrons, gardenias, etc. As for the jasmine, morning glory, impatiens, and lentils in the terraced flowerbed, it is impossible in the courtyard. Missing beauty too.

In the Qing Dynasty, there was a saying called ceiling, fish tank, pomegranate tree, master, fat dog, fat girl, which describes the life in the courtyard, which can be said to be a typical portrayal of life in the courtyard . The courtyard house is generally one household, but with the increase in population and economic pressure, there are also cases where multiple households share a courtyard house, which is called a big house.

In terms of domestic water, the courtyard house is very scientific. Its excretion is mostly in the form of seepage pits, commonly known as seepage wells and seepage trenches. Unfortunately, there are generally no toilets in the courtyards, and most of them are located in hutongs, which are called guanmao houses.

Many courtyards in wealthy families have shadow walls. Its main function is to cover the cluttered walls and scenery inside and outside the gate, to beautify the entrance and exit of the gate. When someone enters or exits the door, the first thing he sees is the exquisitely stacked and exquisitely carved wall and the chanting chanting on it. These odes are mostly in the words blessings, lu, shou, or grain richness, auspicious luck, furudonghai or pictures.

In fact, the existence of any thing is not without reason. The layout of the Beijing Siheyuan building is completely derived from the planning of Beijing City. It is based on the symmetrical arrangement of the north-south vertical axis and closed independent courtyards as the basic characteristics. It forms a social network system centered on the courtyard of the home, the neighborhood of the neighbourhood as the trunk line, and the community area as the plane. Living environment in harmony with the neighborhood. It can be said that the Beijing Courtyard is a collection of ancient Chinese ethics and moral concepts. The solidification of artistic and aesthetic ideas is a three-dimensional crystal of Chinese culture. (Responsible editor: China History Network)

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