The royal garden is a model of the traditional Chinese gardening art, and it is also the only one of the Three Mountains and Five Gardens in Beijing s Qing Dynasty Royal Garden.
Qing Qingyi Garden was built in 1749 in the fourteenth year of Qianlong. Xianfeng was destroyed by the British and French forces in 1860 in the 10th decade. In the fourteenth year of Guangxu, in 1888, Cixi, for personal enjoyment, diverted naval military expenditures to rebuild, renamed the Summer Palace. Cixi spent most of his later years here, leaving many traces of major historical events of the year. The royal family of the Qing Dynasty has been in operation for nearly 300 years and has a large scale with a total area of 290 hectares. There are more than 3,000 palace halls, pavilions, and water pavilions. The layout of the park is divided into palace areas and scenic areas. As early as the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, it was famous for its beautiful and natural pastoral scenery. Today s Wanshou Mountain, the famous Mingshan Mountain in the Yuan Dynasty, it is said that an old man dug a stone urn filled with treasures on the mountain and got its name. In front of the mountain, ther e is a lake named Lushanbo. From 1292 AD to 29th AD, scientist Guo Shoujing dug the Tonghui River and introduced the spring water from Changping and Xishan areas to the lake for transportation, and Laoshanbo became a storage reservoir for regulating Beijing s water use . Many influential temples have been built around the lake. The emperor of the Yuan Dynasty often went here for boat trips, fishing and fishing. In the Ming Dynasty, Sheshanbo was renamed West Lake, Ten miles around the lake, a resort in a county. Every year when the peach willow is green, the people in Beijing support the elderly and bring their children to the West Lake to enjoy the spring and enjoy the spring. At that time, people still have the reputation of West Lake Ten Temples and West Lake Ten Scenic Spots .
In the winter of 1747 of the 14th year of Qianlong, the Emperor Qianlong Hongli wished his mother 60 years of birthday. He carried out large-scale dredging and treatment of the lake and mountains in accordance with the garden ideas, expanded the lake to the northeast, rebuilt the east bank, and imitated it Hangzhou West Lake Sudi has newly built a west bank that runs through the north and the south and divides the water surface into three. The former dragon shrine on the east bank of the west lake has been retained and it has become a larger island. At the same time, the soil of the excavated lake was piled on the mountain in accordance with the needs of the gardening layout, so that the shape of the mountain was like a big bat spreading wings, feeding the lake-like lake water, which was hidden and interesting. The following year 1750, Emperor Qianlong changed the name of Sheshan Mountain to Wanshou Mountain and West Lake to Kunming Lake. After more than ten years of civil work, it has Finally been completed-this large royal garden with a reputation of lakes and mountains.
Xun Xianfeng for ten years In 1860, the Qingyi Garden and the Yuanmingyuan and other famous royal gardens were burned down by the British and French coalition forces. Thousands of cultural relics in the park were looted. In the 12th year of Guangxu, in 1886, the Empress Dowager Cixi appropriated the funds of Beiyang Marine Engineer for reconstruction. It took 10 years and cost 30 million renminbi. It was rebuilt on the ruins of Qingyi Garden. In 1990, the Summer Palace was savagely looted and destroyed by the British, American , German, French, Russian, Japanese, Italian, and Austrian Eight-Power Allied Forces. It was restored in 1993.
The main entrance of the Summer Palace is the East Palace Gate, which faces west to the east. Inside and outside the palace gate, there are symmetrical rooms with six valuable rooms and six palace houses. The entrance to the Renshou Gate from the palace gate is a political building mainly based on the Renshou Hall, which is the place where government affairs are handled during the emperor s residence in the Qing Dynasty. Behind Renshou Hall are three large courtyards: Le Shou Tang, Yu Lan Tang and Yi Yun Hall , which are the places where Cixi, Guangxu and the concubines live. The Deheyuan Theatre on the east side of Yiyun Hall is one of the three theatres in the Qing Dynasty. Among them, the Le Shou Palace where Ci Xi lives, facing Kunming Lake in the east, the Deheyuan Theatre in the east, and the promenade in the west, is the main body of the residential area.
The building structure in the Summer Palace is based on natural landscapes. The architectural form mostly simulates the places of interest in the south of the Yangtze River, or it is Xiao Qiyi, or imitates its shape, and has created many magnificent corridors, bridges, pavilions, pavilions, halls, buildings, Floor, Taiwan. The tourist area is the essence of the Summer Palace landscape. It is divided into three parts: the front of Wanshou Mountain, Kunming Lake, and the back of the mountain.
The center of Wanshou Mountain takes Foxiang Pavilion as the center, and from the sea of wisdom at the top of Wanshou Mountain, it consists of Foxiang Pavilion, Dehui Hall, Paiyun Hall, Paiyun Gate, and Yunhui Jade Yufang. Formed a magnificent main building complex.
Tiled on the south foot of Wanshou Mountain is the rippling Kunming Lake. On the Kunming Lake, you can see Zhichun Pavilion, Long Corridor, Wanshou Mountain, Shijie, Xidi Six Bridge, Dragon King Temple, and Seventeen Hole Bridge, just like a human world. The beautiful scrolls of Wonderland are refreshing. Between Longevity Mountain and Kunming Lake is a promenade over 700 meters long. There are more than 8,000 colorful paintings on the beams of the promenade, which is known as the first corridor in the world . The West Bank of Kunming Lake is modeled after the West Lake s Sudi.
After the mountains and lakes, the clear waters of the back of the lake, the ancient pines are towering, and the quiet is abnormal. There are four major continents of Tibetan-style temples, and a small shop on the bank of Suzhou Maijie Street . The eastern end of Houhu leads to the beautiful and exquisite Xunqu Garden, which is built after Wuchang Jichang Garden, and is called the garden in the garden.
Emperor Qianlong, who grew up in appreciation, has a poem saying: Where is Yanshan s most affectionate, Wushuangfeng Yue belongs to Kunming . The Summer Palace is a landmark in the history of Chinese garden art. Throughout the ages, she has dumped countless Chinese and foreign tourists with her unparalleled garden art charm, and has been praised as a paradise on earth by people. On December 2, 1998, the Summer Palace was listed on the World Heritage List with a lofty evaluation of one of the most powerful civilizations in the world and became a world-class cultural treasure.
The evaluation of the World Heritage Committee was that the Beijing Summer Palace was built in 1750 AD, was severely damaged in the war in 1860, and was restored on the original site in 1886. Its artificial landscapes such as pavilions, promenades, temples, temples, and bridges are harmoniously integrated with natural mountains and open lakes, and are artistically integrated into one. It is a masterpiece in Chinese landscape architecture design. (Responsible editor: China History Network)