In ancient China, the capital of a dynasty was not only a political center, an economic management center, a military command center, but also a cultural center and an education center. Therefore, as the central city of a dynasty and a country in all dynasties, its location and layout have strict requirements to embody the supreme dominance of the king.
First of all, the natural conditions for the site selection of ancient capitals were almost harsh. The topography of the capital city should be chosen from the mountain and the water. Behind the mountain is the need for life and security. Needless to say, the importance of terrain to the capital is self-evident.
In addition, as the capital of the country, the capital must be centered. The so-called center is not in the middle of the entire country, but in the center of a transportation hub. The most basic point of the capital should be to facilitate the control of the whole country, and to form a national transportation network centered on the capital, which is conducive to the exercise of the country s right to rule.
Finally, the capital should have the conditions for human and economic development. The humanistic condition means that the founders of a dynasty generally established the capital in the place where their own nation developed, without distancing themselves from the homeland where they lived for many years. In addition, the economy and culture of the selected area is relatively developed.
In terms of overall layout, the ancient capitals of China had Miyagi (the place where the emperor s office is located), outside the palace city there is the imperial city (where the offices of various ministries work), and outside the imperial city there is Guo Cheng (the place where the people live). This layout is extremely perfect in the construction of Tang Chang an City.
Any A capital city of any unified dynasty in Chinese history has been carefully planned. In the accumulation of years of experience, the construction of the capital has many principles.
First, the capital is dominated by the imperial palace and is located in the center of the city. In the construction of the capital, in order to highlight the ruling palace and the highest position of the central government, the palace must occupy the vital parts of the city, either in the middle or the highlands, and they must be guarded by the palace to make the palace the whole city. The subject. Not only is Miyagi separated from the residential area, but the layout of the Miyagi is also extended to the north and south or spreads around the main hall, which is well-organized, which reflects the dominance of the palace.
Second, Zuozu Youshe, front and rear market. Zuozu Youshe refers to the temple on the left side of the imperial city, where the emperors worshiped their ancestors. In the ancient capitals, the ancestral temple occupied the most important position and the most important position in all temples. Because there is no ourselves without our ancestors, the traditional Chinese concept attaches great importance to the worship of the ancestral temple. To the right of the imperial city is the shrine altar, where the emperors worship the gods of the land and the grain.
Front and back city means that the front part of the imperial city is the imperial court, and it is the place where the emperor s supremacy listens; behind the imperial city is the market, which is the place where the capital s business is traded. The Zuozu Youshe, front and rear city arranged around the imperial city center is intended to reflect the supreme dignity of imperial power.
We take Chang an, the capital of the Tang Dynasty, as an example. The layout of Chang an City is a checkerboard, uniform and uniform, the square is a residential area, and the city is a commercial area without interference. Bai Juyi once wrote a poem describing Chang an City as a hundred thousand homes like a chess board and twelfth street like a vegetable garden . It outlines the pattern of this capital.
The uniform pattern of ancient capitals originated from the idea of the field system in the Western Zhou Dynasty. The design concept of the capital pattern derived from this is concentrated in the late Spring and Autumn Period official book of the State of Qi . Nine tracks. Zuozou Youshe, facing the back city. The city is the same husband. These principles have also been fully reflected in the construction of Beijing.
Third, the central axis runs through the city. The roads of the capital city are symmetrically laid out along the central axis, forming a crossroad network of warp and weft. The central palace is located at the junction of Zhongwei Zhongwei Avenue. The city gate is directly facing the main road and thus connects the roads outside the city. The crisscross road system inside and outside the city forms a smooth traffic network.
The Chang an City of the Tang Dynasty placed palaces, altars, and government offices on both sides of the north-south longitudinal axis. The road network was divided into checkerboards. Each checkerboard was called a square, and it was a circle around the city. The capital construction of Japan, North Korea and other countries are all built after Changan City.
The ancient capitals also attached great importance to greening. Trees were planted on both sides of the roads of the imperial capitals in the past. The north was dominated by locust and elm, and the south was combined with willow and locust. For the greening layout of Yu Street on the central axis of the capital, it is more particular about the Yugou in the middle of the road, diversion and irrigation, and tree planting along the ditch. This practice of planting trees along the road reached Tang Shi in Japan.
In the construction of ancient capitals, you can see the ingenious combination of unity and diversity in ancient Chinese urban planning. The planning concept of unity of heaven and man makes urban construction pursue the characteristics of overall and perfection, order and regularity, harmony and unity . This kind of highly rational beauty is unparalleled in the world, and it is also a comprehensive reflection of Chinese historical civilization. (Responsible editor: China History Network)