The Banpo site is located in Banpo Village in the eastern suburbs of Xi an, on a secondary platform on the east bank of the Luchan River. The Banpo site is one of the typical cultural sites of Yangshao in the Neolithic era in China. It is from 6800 to 5900 years ago. It vividly shows the production and life of the ancestors during the prosperity of the matrilineal clan society. The site was discovered in 1953, and five large-scale excavations were carried out from 1954 to 1957. On the basis of the excavation, China s first primitive social site museum was built and opened to audiences. In 1962, the Banpo site was promulgated by the State Council as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units. The site covers an area of About 5,000 square meters and is roughly shaped as an irregular ellipse slightly longer from north to south and shorter from east to west. It is divided into a residential area surrounded by Daweigou, a clan public cemetery to the north of Weig ou, and ceramics to the east. District three. Within the area of about 10,000 square meters, rich relics and a large number of relics were found and excavated.
On the east side of the Fengfanggou are the pottery kiln ruins. Six pottery kiln have been found. The Banpo pottery kiln is divided into two types: horizontal hole and vertical hole. The structure includes five parts: fire mouth, fire chamber, kiln calculation , fire tunnel and kiln chamber. The kiln room of the vertical hole kiln is above the fire chamber, with straight walls, mostly cylindrical, coated with a layer of grass mud. The bottom of the kiln chamber is a kiln, and there are more than a dozen fire holes. The flame coming from the fire mouth and the fire chamber Enter the kiln chamber through the fire tunnel and countersink. The kiln chamber of the Hengxue kiln is on the side of the fire chamber. The fire chamber is in the shape of a horizontally long cylinder. There are dozens of fire holes around the kiln wall at an equal distance. The kiln chamber is round and about 1 meter in diameter. From the shape of the kiln, it is estimated that 4 to 5 small pottery or 1 large pottery can be burned per kiln.
The structure of the Pan Ban Po kiln surprised the experts. The most primitive method of firing pottery was no pottery at all. Even in modern times, some backward nationalities have directly fired pottery, piled up drafts, leaves and branches, put pottery on it , and fired it in the open. Or after the pottery and firewood are piled up, the outside is covered with grass and mud, and the ignition hole is left below, and the smoke mouth is left for burning. Compared with these original pottery firing methods, the technology of Banpo people before 6000 was far ahead.
Dig The excavation and research on the Banpo site still needs further exploration. Many questions remain unanswered. For example, there are indications that this primitive village seems to have been suddenly abandoned, and even tools and food have not been taken away. Why is this ? Is it war? Flood? Disaster? Earthquake? Religious terror? It s all possible. But there is no evidence. This is a mysterious mystery! (Responsible editor: China History Network)