There are two types of gardens in ancient China. One is the royal garden, and the other is the private private garden. The royal garden is represented by the Summer Palace, and the Suzhou garden is a well-deserved representative of private gardens.
Although the Summer Palace is the representative of the royal garden, in fact, the essence of Chinese classical gardens is concentrated in the Jiangnan area. The ancients praised Suzhou gardens as the Jiangnan Garden is the world, and the Suzhou garden is the Jiangnan . This is because Suzhou has been an important city in the south of China since the Spring and Autumn Period. Its material abundance, developed culture, and excellent conditions of mountains and rivers have been second to none since the Jin Dynasty and moved to the Qing Dynasty. The bureaucrats therefore continued to build gardens for their enjoyment in Suzhou.
Because of these people s efforts, the quantity and quality of existing Suzhou classical gardens are considerable. Among them, the most famous are Humble Administrator s Garden, Lingering Garden, Lion Forest, Canglang Pavilion and Net Master Garden. Of course, not only Suzhou gardens, but also other famous places in the south of the Jiangnan and northern regions, such as the Summer Palace in Beijing, Beihai, and Chengde Mountain Resort in Chengde, Hebei.
Classical Landscapes of Chinese classical gardens mainly worship nature as a teacher, and paint cats and tigers, that is, use artificial power to build natural landscapes, and reach the artistic realm of though it is created by mankind. Therefore, in addition to a large number of buildings in the garden, it is necessary to chisel the pond to open the mountains, plant flowers and trees, artificially imitate natural landscapes, or use ancient landscape paintings as a model, and look for the mood from the poetry , forming many picturesque Great view. Many people say that Chinese classical gardens are indeed a complex of arts such as architecture, mountain ponds, gardening, painting, sculpture, and even poetry.
So The reason why Chinese classical gardens have such proud features is determined by the nature of the gardens. We know that, whether they are feudal emperors or bureaucratic landlords, they are eager to enjoy the good material enjoyment of the city, but they also want to enjoy the pleasure of mountain, forest and spring. Therefore, they have built many gardens in order to achieve the purpose of living in the city and enjoying the forest.
In ancient China, gardens were the gardens of wealthy people. For ordinary people, they were forbidden. The garden is surrounded by walls, and the scenery is hidden in the garden. Furthermore, with the exception of a few royal palaces, the gardens are generally small in area. To reproduce the beauty of natural landscapes in a small area, the most important and most difficult thing is to break through the limitations of space and make the limited space show infinitely rich landscapes, but Chinese garden designers have solved this difficulty .
Landscape designers usually adopt zigzag and free layouts, adopting methods of dividing scenic spots and spaces, and borrowing scenery. This zigzag and free layout is the most useful place in the small Jiangnan private garden. For example, at the entrances of most gardens in Suzhou, rockery, small courtyards, and leaking windows are often used as barriers to properly block the sight of tourists. When people enter the park door, they only dimly see the corner of the landscape. After several twists and turns, they can see the garden pond The whole picture of the pavilion.
留 Suzhou s Lingering Garden is famous for its compact layout, variety, and the beauty of changing steps. At the entrance of the garden gate, the designers first used leaked windows to emphasize the deep twists and turns in the garden. As for the scenery in the park, the scenery is developed in turn along with the tortuous plane.
The method of dividing the scenic area and space is to subtly use the landscape, trees, flowers, buildings, etc. to divide the whole park into several scenic areas. Each scenic area has its own characteristics, and at the same time it highlights the main features of this garden. Featured key scenic spots. Taking only the largest garden Humble Administrator s Garden in Suzhou as an example, the whole garden includes three parts: the middle, the west, and the east. The middle part is the essence of the whole park. In the garden, the water area occupies a large part of the garden. The pavilions and pavilions, most of which face the water, are light and lively in shape, and try to be open to all sides in order to capture the natural scenery of the water village in the south of the river. In terms of space treatment, designers use mountains, pools, trees, pavilions, pavilions, and fewer walls. Therefore, if you walk in the garden, you will find that the space in the garden communicates with each other, interspersed with each other, and has rich levels.
Borrow The art method of borrowing landscapes is even more used by designers. It is a clever borrowing of landscapes outside or near the garden into the garden and becomes part of the landscape. This technique is widely used in China s classical gardens, and has high achievements. This method of borrowing scenery in Chinese classical gardens is summarized in the book Yuan Ye as five methods, namely far borrowing, neighbor borrowing, borrowing, borrowing, borrowing from time to time. One of the most important features of the existing Canglang Pavilion in the existing classical gardens in Suzhou is its ability to borrow scenery. Because there is a large stream of clear water around the garden gate, the garden has no boundary wall on this side, and the cloister with leaking windows is used to cleverly borrow the river scenery into the garden. This belongs to the scenery outside the park, which is far borrowing. The so-called borrowing, borrowing, borrowing, borrowing from time t o time mainly refers to borrowing scenes in gardens. The so-called neighborly borrowing refers to the scenery in the garden that is not far away, facing each other, supporting each other, and echoing each other. For example, the pavilions , bridges, willows, and stones near the Zhichun Pavilion in the Summer Palace face each other, and they look harmonious and beautiful. Yang borrowing generally refers to the blue white clouds in the garden, or celestial phenomena such as the bright moon and stars. However, things like looking up to the peaks and waterfalls, as well as magnificent pine and cypress, can also be referred to as borrowing. For example, if you enter the main entrance of Beihai Park in Beijing, you can look up at the white tower that looks like a dazzling show; Looping out means looking at the reflection of the lake by the railings, fish swimming in Linxuan and so on. Let s borrow from time to time refers to the use of changes in scenery at different times of the y ear or in January, such as spring flowers and trees, summer tree shades, autumn red leaves, winter snow scenes, morning sunrises and evening sunsets The afterglow, etc., can be borrowed from time to time. For example, Suzhou s network masters garden, known for its exquisiteness and profoundness, is an important scenic spot in the garden. Peony flowers in late spring come to make a landscape.
Chinese classical gardens are also particularly good at using various buildings with strong national styles, such as pavilions, platforms, buildings, pavilions, corridors, pavilions, pavilions, pavilions, bridges, etc., to cooperate with natural water, stones, flowers, and wood. And other compositions reflect a variety of interesting landscapes. Taking common pavilions, corridors, and bridges as examples, the artistic images and artistic realms they form are unique. Ruting, not only is very colorful, but it also plays the role of point scene and introduction in the middle of the garden. Such as the Hubei Pavilion in Suzhou West Park, the Dongtian Banting in Zhuozheng Garden and the Wulong Pavilion in Beihai Park in Beijing. For another example, the corridor in the middle of the garden not only guides tourists to explore the route, but also plays a role of dividing space and combining scenery. For example, when people stroll on the water corridor of Suzhou Humble Administrator s Gar den, it is light and graceful, just like Lingbo strolling; the double corridor of Suzhou Yiyuan is separated by flower walls, and the flower windows of different forms on the wall make the garden bounded and unbounded. It seems that there is a scene in the scene, a scene in the small scene, a large scene in the small scene, and endless changes. This kind of flower window is widely used in Jiangnan classical gardens. This is an outstanding creation of ancient architects.
As for the bridges in Chinese gardens, it is even more colorful in its colorful forms, which shines in the world s architectural art. The most prominent examples are the Seventeen-hole Bridge and the Jade Belt Bridge in the Summer Palace in Beijing. They each embellish the scenery of the Summer Palace with their vivid and unique shapes. In addition, the Wuting Bridge in Slender West Lake in Yangzhou, Jiangsu, and the corridor bridge in Suzhou Humble Administrator s Garden are another style, which is one of the most striking landscapes in these gardens.